MAJOR LANDFORMS OF THE EARTH
Hello readers in this chapter we have come up with the summary of NCERT class 6 chapter 1 of geography book which is ‘Major Landforms of the Earth’. In the last chapter we have discussed about the major domains of the earth. You must have visited somewhere or show from your area that the earth surface is not same everywhere. This have many variety of landforms like some part of it are rugged and some are plains. There are two small process by which these varieties created –
Internal process– the ground on which we are living is moving slowly within the earth. This movement of earth within it are termed as internal process. Therefore, internal process leads to upliftment and sinking of the earth’s surface.
External process– this is the process which happen on the earth not inside it like wearing down and rebuilding of surface. When the earth’s surface wear down it is called as erosion and when it rebuilds it is termed as deposition. These process take place due to running water, ice and wind.
We can differentiate landforms according to their elevation and slope in mountains, plateau, plains etc.
Hill is a landform which is higher that surrounding area. Generally, a hill elevation more than 600 meters is termed as mountain. Mountains are too high; some are even higher than the clouds. When we go up at mountains climate become colder and some of them has permanently frozen layer of ice called as glaciers. When many mountains arranged in a line and extent up to hundreds of kilometers, known as Ranges. For example, The Himalayas in Asia; The Alps in Europe and the Andes in South America.
Fold mountains are mountains that has made up of different fold layer in it. The Himalayas and the Alps are example of young fold mountains with very high conical peaks. The Aravalli in India is one of the oldest fold mountains. Other old fold mountains are the Appalachians in North America and the Ural Mountains in Russia.
Block Mountains – these type of mountains is created when large area is broken and displaced vertically. There are two name which comes out, one area which got uplifted is known as horst and other which is lower called as graben. Example of such type of mountains are the Rhine valley and the Vosges mountain in Europe.
Volcanic Mountains– are formed due to volcanic activities. Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa and Mt. Fujiyama in japan are some example of such type of mountains.
Mountains are very useful in various ways. They are sources of maximum river so we can say that they are storehouses of water. Mountains have very rich variety of flora and fauna and also they provide us forest produces like fuel, fodder etc. mountains are also very popular in tourists.
Plateau is an elevated landform which has flat top. Plateau has steep slopes; it may have steep slopes at one or more sides. The height of plateau can be from hundreds of meter to several thousands of meters. The Deccan plateau of India is one of the oldest plateau in the world. Other example of plateau is the East African plateau and the Western plateau of Australia. the highest plateau in the world is the Tibet plateau. its height is 4000 meter to 6000 meters above the mean sea level (MSL).
Plateau are very useful because of their richness in mineral deposits and many of the mining area in the world are in plateau. famous gold and diamond mines are in the African plateau. the Chhotanagpur plateau in India has huge reserves of iron, coal and manganese.
These are larges stretches of flat land. The height of the plains are generally not more than 200 meters above the MSL. Most of the plains are formed by rivers and its tributaries. When river flows from mountains they carry load or say eroded material with them in the form of silt, stones and sand. River deposit their load along its courses and in their valley therefore plains are very fertile and good for agriculture.
Ganga plains and Brahmaputra plains in India are some of the largest plains which was formed by rivers. Other example is Yangtze in China. Plains are most useful for human habitation therefore has high population.
Thank you! I hope you liked this explanation of major landforms of the earth surface. If you still have any doubt please, feel free to comment below.