Globe latitudes and longitudes Class 6 notes Chapter 2 Geography

Hello, Globe latitudes and longitudes class 6 notes will be covered in this post which include three heat zones of the earth too. This is chapter 2 of class 6th NCERT book.

I hope, you have gone through the last chapter the earth in the solar system.

We know that our earth is not a perfect sphere. It is slightly flattened at the North and the South Poles with a bulge in the middle.

Globe latitudes and longitudes Class 6 notes

Globe is a miniature form of earth.

So, we can say that it is the true model of the earth. It can be of various sizes, big ones, small pocket globes etc.

Globe axis

The globe is not fix; it can rotate as the earth rotates on its axis. On the globe, we can see countries, continents and oceans.

Now the question arises that how we can denote various locations on the globe?

We have needle passing through the globe called as its axis. The point through which axis passes are two poles of the earth, the North Pole and the South Pole. Our Earth moves around its axis from west to east, same as the globe does.

So, the thing which we should remember is that the earth has no needle in reality. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line.

Globe - Latitudes and Longitudes, Heat Zones and Standard times NCERT Class 6 Geography

Equator is another imaginary line which divides the earth into two equal halves – Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The equator is a circular imaginary line.

Globe Parallels of Latitudes

Parallels of Latitudes

These are measured in degrees. The equator represents the 0- degree latitude. All parallels to the north of the equator are ‘north latitudes’ and south of the equator are ‘south latitudes’. We denote these latitudes followed by the letter ‘N’ or ‘S’. for example, we have a different meaning of 20-degree N and 20-degree S.

Degree in respect of Globe latitudes and longitudes class 6 notes

A full circle measured in 360o so from the equator, any of the pole is 90 degrees. Thus, 90-degree north latitude will be north pole and 90-degree south latitude is south pole. We further divide the degree into minutes and minute into seconds. For example, 9o 20’ 12” means 9-degree, 20 minutes and 12 second.

Important Parallels of Latitude

  • Equator at 0-degree latitude
  • The North Pole at 90o N latitude
  • The South Pole at 90o S latitude
  • Tropic of Cancer at 23o 30’ N in Northern Hemisphere
  • Tropic of Capricorn at 23o 30’ S in Southern Hemisphere
  • Arctic Circle at 66o 30’ N
  • Antarctic Circle at 66o 30’ S

Heat Zones of the Earth

There are 3 heat zones of the Earth and they are following –

Torrid Heat Zone of the earth

Torrid zone is between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn. In this area, the sun comes overhead at least once a year on all the locations. This area receives the maximum amount of heat and light.

Temperate Heat Zones of the earth

This heat zone is divided into both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere it is the area between Tropic of Cancer and Arctic Circle, in Southern Hemisphere, it is the area between Tropic of Capricorn and Antarctic Circle. The sun rays go on decreasing towards the poles, therefore, this zone has a moderate temperature.

Frigid Heat Zones of the earth

Frigid heat zone is also divided between both hemispheres. In the Northern Hemisphere it is the area between Arctic Circle and the North Pole, in Southern Hemisphere, it is the area between Antarctic Circle and the South Pole.

Meridians of longitudes

These are the reference lines running from north pole to south pole. The distance between them is also measured in degree of longitudes. All meridian of longitudes is of equal length whereas latitudes are not.

The Prime Meridian

0o meridian or the Prime Meridian is passes through Greenwich, where the British Royal Observatory is located. From this Prime Meridian we count other Meridians up to 180o eastward and 180o westwards and therefore the 180o East and 180o West Meridian is at same line.

The Prime meridian and the 180-degree meridian divides the earth into two equal halves, the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.


Time difference between the 1-degree of longitude is 4 minutes. the standard time starts from the Prime meridian and others are ahead or behind this time. India has its standard time meridian at 82o 30’ and it is named as Indian Standard Meridian. The time at this meridian is +5:30 i.e. 5 hours 30 minute ahead of Greenwich line.

Our earth has divided into 24 time zones. Some countries in the world has large east west extent and divided into several time zone. Russia is one of those countries and has 15 time zones.

Thank You! I hope you got the globe latitudes and longitudes class 6 notes. If you still have any doubts about this topic feel free to comment below.

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