Weather is the day to day changes in the atmosphere like temperature, sunshine and rainfall etc. for example, a day may be hot or cold; sunny or cloudy etc. there is another term which you should know is climate. It is the average weather condition which has been measured over years. Climate of a place depends on many factors like location of a place, altitude, distance from sea, Relief etc.
Four Major Seasons in India
Cold Weather Season or Winter
Winter are generally between December to February. During this season the sun rays do not fall directly on the ground in that region and because of that the temperature become low. This temperature is very low in northernmost India.
Hot Weather Season or Summer
This season come in the months of march to May. In this hot season the sun rays directly fall in the region and the temperature become very high. Hot and dry wind which are common in dry area like Rajasthan called as loo.
South West Monsoon Season or Rainy Season
This season comes between months of June and September. This season is the season in which rainfall occurs. In this season wind blow from Arabian sea and Bay of Bengal to the land with carrying moisture with them. When these wind strike with some barriers in their path, rainfall occurs. Mawsynram in Meghalaya receives the highest amount of rainfall in India.
Season of Retreating Monsoon or Autumn
This season comes between months of October and November. In this season the winds which came to land during rainy season, move back from the mainland to Bay of Bengal. In this season mostly southern part of India receives rainfall.
We see many variety of plant in our surroundings. There are many type of trees and plants depends upon climatic condition in an area. The tree, grasses and shrubs, which grows on their own w.r.t. the climatic conditions without any interference of human is called as Natural Vegetation. Natural Vegetation of India can be divided into five types which are – tropical rain forest, tropical deciduous forest, thorny bushes, mountain vegetation and mangrove forest.
Tropical Rain Forest
These forest occur in heavy rainfall areas. These are very dense forest, even sunlight can’t pass through these forest. There are many variety of trees therefore these forest always look green and called as evergreen forest. These forest found in the areas of Andaman and Nicobar Island, some parts of north eastern states and western slope of Western Ghats. Mahogany, ebony and rosewood are some of the important tree found in these forests.
Tropical Deciduous Forest
Large part of India has these type of forest. These forest are less dense and trees in these forest shed their leaves at a particular time of the year. These forest are also called as monsoon forest. Sal, Teak, Peepal, Neem and Shisham are some of the important tree of these forest. These forest are found in Madhya Pradesh, Utter Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and parts of Maharashtra.
These type of vegetation are features of dry areas. Leave of these vegetation is very small to reduce water consumption. Some of the important tress comes under this vegetation are Cactus, Khair, Babool, Keekar. This type of vegetation is found in Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Gujrat and Eastern slopes of Western Ghats.
As understood from the name this vegetation is found in mountain region. With increase in height temperature decrease. At 1500 to 2500-meter height most of the tree are conical in shape. For example, Chir, Pine and Deodar tree.
These forest can survive in salty water. Sundari is the well-known tree in these type of forest. These are found in areas of West Bengal and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Sunderban forest is this type of forest.
Importance of Forest
Forest are very important to us, they provide us the oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide from the environment. Also they control the soil erosion. We get many type of forest produce from them like furniture, herbs, lac, honey, gum etc.
Wild life lives in forests. There are many variety of wildlife like animal, reptile, amphibians, mammals, birds, insects and worms in forests. Tiger is our national animal and it is found in many parts of country. Gir forest in Gujrat is home for Asiatic lions. Camels and wild asses are found in the Thar desert. The peacock is our national bird. Indian government have started projects to protect forest and wildlife like project tiger and project elephant etc.
Read all Summary of NCERT class 6 Geography book here.