Major domains of the Earth Class 6 notes Geography Chapter 5

Major domains of the earth class 6 notes | Geography chapter 5 class 6

Major Domains of the Earth Class 6 notes

As we all know that the earth is the only planet which sustains life because it has all the life sustaining element like land, water and air. The surface of the earth has many components but there are three major components, the solid portion of the earth in which we live is called as Lithosphere, the gaseous layer around the earth is Atmosphere and the area which is covered by water is called as Hydrosphere. There is another zone called as Biosphere which comprises with all the three other zone i.e. Lithosphere, Atmosphere and Hydrosphere.


Lithosphere is the solid portion of the earth. It comprises the rocks of the earth crust (the uppermost part of the earth) and the thin layers of soil. Two main division of the earth surface comes under the Lithosphere, known as continents and ocean basins. All the ocean on the earth are connected with each other. We water level in all the ocean remain same which is known as sea level and considered as zero to calculated other altitudes on the earth surface.

  • Highest point on earth – Mt. Everest (8848 m)
  • Deepest point on earth – Mariana Trench (11022 m)
MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH - Litosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere
Continents and Ocean

Continents – Major domains of the earth class 6

Asia is the largest continent in the world. It has about 1/3 part of the total area of the earth. Ural Mountains in the west separates Asia from Europe. Asia and Europe together called as Eurasia. The highest peaks on the earth is situated in Asia on the Himalayas.

Europe is bounded by water bodies from 3 sides. Some of its area comes under Arctic circle. It lies towards the west of Asia.

Africa is the second largest continent of the earth. Most of the part of Africa comes under Torrid zone and it is the only continent through which the Tropic of Cancer, the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn pass. The world’s largest hot desert, the Sahara Desert and the world’s longest river the Nile are situated in Africa.

North America is the third largest continent of the world and is linked to South America through a very narrow strip named as Isthmus of Panama.

South America is mostly lies in the southern hemisphere. It has the world’s longest mountain range which is the Andes and the world’s largest river Amazon is also flows through it.

Australia is the smallest continent of the all seven continents. The whole Australia lies in southern hemisphere and surrounded by ocean from all side therefore it is called as the island continent.

Antarctica is a huge continent. The Southern Pole lies almost at the center of it. It is in frigid zone therefore no permanent human settlement available there. Many of the countries have research center in Antarctica like India has named as Maitri and Dakshin Gangotri.

Fact you should know –

  • River Nile is longest river which means it has highest length and River Amazon is largest river which means it has highest width.
  • Isthmus is a narrow strip of land joining to landmasses.
  • strait is a narrow passes of water connecting two large bodies like seas and oceans.
  • Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay Sherpa from India were the first men to climb the highest peak Mt. Everest on 29thMay, 1953. Junko Tabei from Japan was the 1st woman in the world on 16th May, 1975 and Bachendri Pal is the 1st woman from India who climbed Mt. Everest on 23rd May, 1984.


The earth is called blue planet because more than 71% of earth surface is covered by water and only 29% remains as land. Hydrosphere comprises all the water available on the earth in every form even the water which is available in atmosphere in vapor form. 97.2% of all the water is available in oceans. Only 0.03% water is Fresh Water other which remains is stored in the form of ice sheets and ground water.


According to their size the five major ocean on the earth are the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. The Pacific Oceanis the largest ocean of the world. Mariana trench lies in the Pacific Ocean. The Pacific Ocean is almost circular in shape.

The Atlantic Oceanis the second largest ocean in the world and it is shaped like letter ‘S’. The Indian Ocean is the only ocean which is named after a country that is India. Indian Ocean has a shape almost like a triangle. The Southern Ocean form a circle around Antarctica.

The Arctic Oceanis located within the arctic circle around the North Pole. It is connected by Pacific Ocean by a narrow water stretch which is known as Berring Strait.   


MAJOR DOMAINS OF THE EARTH - Litosphere, Hydrosphere and Atmosphere

Atmosphere is the layer of gases around the earth. It provides us the air which we breathe and protect us from the harmful sun rays. 99 per cent of the atmosphere is Nitrogen (78%) and Oxygen (21%). Other 1 per cent comprises gases like carbon dioxide, argon etc.

Carbon dioxide is also important as it absorb the heat radiations and keep the planet warm but there is another aspect of it. If per cent of carbon dioxide increases than heat will be absorbed more and more that leads to Global Warming. The atmosphere is divided into five layers which are (from earth’s surface) troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere, the thermosphere and the exosphere. Wind is the moving air; Air moves because of the pressure difference between two places.


This is the zone of the earth which has all the three zone i.e. lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. All the human organisms are linked to biosphere for survival. The organisms in the biosphere are divided into the plant kingdom and the animal kingdom. The three domains of the earth affect each other in one way or the other like if we cut the forest, it may lead to removal of soil from that area.

Thank You! I hope you all like this summary of NCERT class 6 Geography chapter 5 “major domains of the earth”. If you have any doubts about anything, please feel free to comment below.

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