On the trail of the Earliest People
|Painting in Bhimbetka caves|
On the trail of the Earliest People is the chapter of class 6 History NCERT book. In this article, we are summarizing this chapter 2 of class 6 History.
We know the history of the people who lived in the subcontinent about two million years ago and we know them as a hunter-gatherer.
This name was given on the basis of their style of getting food. They gathered their food by hunting wild animals, catching birds and fishes, fruits, roots, nuts, etc. none of these works are easy to do like there are many animals which run faster than humans. Also to catch fishes and birds we need to be alert and quick, we should know about each and every plant which we eat.
Why hunter-gatherer moved place to place?
- They would have to move in search of food because they may end up by consuming all the resources of one place.
- Animal move one place to another place, therefore, they have to move in search of animals.
- Much of the plant give fruits according to seasons and due to change in season hunter-gatherer change their place.
- The last reason is water. Everything like plants, animals, and human depends on the water resource. So in search of water resources, they change their place.
How do we know about these people?
We came to know about these people with the help of archaeologists. They found the tools which were made by hunter-gatherer to hunt and do their usual work. It was observed that they made their tools with the use of stone, bone and wood and stone tools were survived best till now.
These tools were used to cut meat and bones, to make arrows for hunting, to scrape bark of trees, to chop fruits and fishes. Some tools were attached with handles of wood or bone-like tools which were used to make the arrow, has a handle on them.
Evidence of the earliest people
Archaeologist found evidence of hunter-gatherer from many places in India, for instance, some of them are Bhimbetka, Hunsgi and Kurnool caves.
As stone tools were important for a hunter-gatherer, archaeologist tried to find evidence at the places where the good quality stone was found. Factory sites were the places where people found and made tools. Another word is ‘habitation cum factory sites’ at which people also lived and made their tools.
How stone tools were made?
there are two techniques of making stone tools.
Stone on Stone technique
The first technique which was used to make stone tools is ‘stone on stone’. In this technique, one stone was used as the hammer in one hand and another stone was used as core In other words stone from which the tool has to be made. The hammer stone strikes off flakes from the core until they get the desired shape.
Pressure flaking Technique
Another technique is Pressure flaking. In this technique the core was placed on a surface and the hammer stone was used with a handle attached to it.
Traces of Fire & Crops
Traces of fire have been found in the Kurnool caves.
Time: Palaeolithic, Mesolithic & Neolithic
Archaeologist gave a name to the time from which humanity could have gone through.
They called the earliest time as Palaeolithic and it was divided into three parts which are lower, middle and upper Palaeolithic. This time extends up to 12000 years ago from about 2 million years ago.
Mesolithic began from 12000 years ago up to 10000 years ago. It was the time in which environment changes, development of grassland started.
The last time which we know is the Neolithic time from 10000 years ago to present.
There were painting found on the walls of caves which shows some type of wild animals.
In Conclusion, I would say that
We read everything which was available in the NCERT class 6 History Chapter 1 or say about hunter-gatherers. Now we may have doubts like who made these tools? Who painted the walls? This is not clear that who did all this, whether man or woman or both together. You can think about this and can comment below if you have any thought in your mind.
Thank You! I hope you liked this summary of NCERT Class 6 History book chapter 2 “On the trail of the Earliest People”. If you have any doubt related to this post, please feel free to comment below.